*Analogies in the measuring systems*

**5.2**

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**Elements for measurment**

We can recognize this analogous setup in all three measuring systems. In each of these, we find the following three elements.:

# figure 5.2.1 Constructional elements of measuring systems

**1**. a plane that expands from its centre in the form of a circle, making visible its circumference somewhere in its surrounding space,

**2**. a central axis starting out from the center, perpendicular to the aforementioned plane, forming a virtual North and South Pole above and below the center (the point of observation).

**3**. a projection arc that is drawn from both Polar points, passing through the celestial body in question and indicating its coordinates (P) at the circumference of the plane.

The coordinates of celestial bodies are taken from the graduation scale on the circle’s circumference as well as from that on the projection arc, measured in degrees.

Each of these systems enables us to indicate the position of a celestial body by means of coordinates.

**An example **

For example, looking at the setup of the Horizon system, we encounter these three elements in the form of:

- __the plane__ of the system’s circumference, the Horizon plane, which is the plane on which we stand at that moment,

- __the system’s axis__, the Zenith-Nadir axis, which can be viewed as the elongation of our own spinal column, and

- __the projection arc__ is the Meridian (the time circle) of the place we find ourselves at.

**The interconnectedness of the three measuring systems **

With the information contained in the addendum, I trust that you can familiarize yourself with these three systems sufficiently to be able to follow the upcoming analogical (that is, more intuitive) discussion of these systems.

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